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Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed; Tunis, however, was rebuilt first The medina of Tunis, the oldest section of the city, dates from this period, during which the region was conquered by Arab troops led by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'man.
The city had the natural advantage of coastal access, via the Mediterranean, to the major ports of southern Europe.
Having previously played a minor role behind Kairouan and Mahdia, Tunis was promoted to the rank of provincial capital.
In 1228, Governor Abu Zakariya seized power and, a year later, took the title of Emir and founded the Hafsid dynasty.
Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large.
Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf of Tunis), behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Ḥalq il-Wād), the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it.Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis.Some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith ('Tanit or Tanut), as many ancient cities were named after patron deities.While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus.These writers belonged to peoples in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage.